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عنوان البحث(Papers / Research Title)


Learning Conversational Skills


الناشر \ المحرر \ الكاتب (Author / Editor / Publisher)

 
ميس فليح حسن الجباوي

Citation Information


ميس,فليح,حسن,الجباوي ,Learning Conversational Skills , Time 4/29/2011 2:05:08 PM : كلية التربية للعلوم الانسانية

وصف الابستركت (Abstract)


Assessing the outcomes of EFL learning conversational skills for iraqi Efl undergraduates

الوصف الكامل (Full Abstract)

learning conversational skills The ability to communicate through effective speaking is as important to language skill development as is the ability to write effectively. It follows that any language learners must develop their communication skills through the authentic use of the conversational skills. Learners have to take note of the style they use when speaking and expressing themselves. Thus, linguists and teaching language methodologists showed their special concern regarding the fore-mentioned notion:Coughlin claims that both motor-perceptive skills and interaction adeptness are usually required in conversation. Many times this pairing calls upon effective understanding of the two in order to implement oral exercises in an effective manner. Motor skills involve perceiving, recalling, and articulating in the correct order sounds and structures of the language. Interaction skills involve making decisions about communication, such as what to say and how to say it (Coughlin, 2006: 1). Dostal sees that the first rule to be able to speak effectively; is planning what to say. What is the main idea of what the learners are trying to convey? Organizing their thoughts so they lead to the main idea of the message they are trying to send across (Dostal, 2007:1). Wallace and Walberg believe that learners improve their speech when teachers provide insights on how to organize their ideas for presentation. Learners can give better speeches when they can organize their presentation in a variety of different ways, including sequentially, chronologically and thematically. Teachers can also help learners adapt their speeches and informal talks so as to correspond the information to be communicated, and the circumstances of the occasion at which they will speak (Wallace; Stariha and Walberg, 2008: 10). Generally the situation or setting makes a difference in the way the learner uses the language, for example, time limitations. Does the learner have time to “process” his or her thoughts before speaking out loud? Other conditions can also affect the use of language. Does it make a difference whether the learner is interacting with one person or of speech routinely used in conversation which teachers should be aware of while teaching in the classroom: (a) Interaction routines typically occur in any given situation and are likely to occur in a specific sequence.  (b) Descriptions of places and people: demonstration of facts or comparisons all refer to “information routines.” Such routines do not just concern speech, they also occur in written language. (c) Negotiation of meaning refers to the skill of communicating ideas clearly and includes the way learners signal their understanding during an exchange. (d) Feedback is the method of examining comprehension as the interaction unfolds. (e) Turn-taking is the knowledge which comes with negotiating the control of a conversation. Practical turn-taking requires five abilities: 1. Knowing how to signal that one wants to speak. 2. Recognizing the right moment to get a turn.  3. How to use this structure in order to get one’s turn properly and not lose it. 4. The ability to recognize other people’s signals or desire to speak. 5. The ability to acknowledge other people’s signals and let them take a turn. (f) Communication strategies are approaches designed to deal with conversation difficulties (Ibid). In addition to being aware of the differing kinds of speech it might also be advantageous to develop a list of some of the important speaking skills the teacher need to teach to learners corresponding the conversational skill (whether they are elementary, intermediate or college learners) (Ibid):a) The ability to reproduce sounds. b) The knowledge and use of a practical vocabulary. c) The use of idioms (for example: Hi, instead of Hello). d) The ability to respond in sentences. e) The ability to condense verbs (for example: replacing did not with didn’t). f) A vocabulary which enables the student to play games. g) Knowing and using familiar “native speaker” greetings. h) The ability to carry on a limited conversation. i) The ability to agree or disagree. j) The ability to identify people and places. k) The capability to express preferences. l) The skill to expresses opinions. m) The ability to ask for and give suggestions. n) The ability to report on what people are asking and saying. o) The ability to summarize a conversation.p) Learners may enjoy speaking about their personal experiences (Wallace; Stariha and Walberg, 2008: 10).Yet, problems can arise when using interaction activities in the classroom, such as a learner’s inexperience in focusing on a particular topic or a limited vocabulary for developing the necessary explanation. Different cultural backgrounds at times may also interfere with the uniform picture of the situation. The teacher’s ability to recognize cues in speech patterns and conversation goes a long way in developing one’s classroom skills. Conversation is regarded as a skill requiring the teacher to generate speech that is acceptable in both content and form. Teachers learn to facilitate ease in the oral production of speech in many ways; also he must plan communication strategies to deal with conversation difficulties (Coughlin, 2006: 3).

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